Fighting fat with… fat?

What do explosives and weight loss have in common?* To find out we need to go back to World War One, to a munitions factory in France. People working with explosives were running high temperatures and losing weight. Some dangerously so. This was no fever, due to some viral or bacterial infection. It was due to a chemical they were using, similar in structure to TNT: dinitrophenol (DNP). Later, in the 1930s, DNP popped up again, this time marketed as a treatment for obesity. It failed due to its high toxicity. We now know how DNP causes these bizarre effects; it short-circuits a key process used by cells to store energy in chemical form, releasing it as heat instead. We’ve since discovered that this is a trick mammals are born to do to. A type of fat, called ‘brown adipose tissue’, or BAT, does the same trick as DNP, only ...(Read More)

My enemy’s enemy is my… enemy?

Like a kind of Russian doll infection, a prolific human parasite—responsible for almost 250 million infections annually—can itself harbour a parasite, a virus. You might reasonably feel a sense of something akin to schadenfreude; glad it’s getting a dose of its own medicine, so to speak… But you may be too hasty. The very presence of this virus—though it doesn’t infect human cells—in its parasite host could be making infections worse, or even stymying our attempts at  relieving the infection. The parasite in question, with around 3.7 million people infected in the US alone, is the most common protozoan infection in the industrialised world: Trichomonas vaginalis (TrV). It infects the human genitourinary tract of both men and women causing Trichomoniasis; in fact, it can only live in the human genitourinary tract (an ‘obligate human parasite’). Women are more likely to experience symptoms than men, and while generally mild,  it can be bad. Its ...(Read More)